The tricarboxylate carrier (TCC), also known as citrate car- ... Lipogenesis requires cooperation between mitochondrial and cytoplasmic enzymes and involves fluxes of ... citric acid via the tricarboxylate transport system (Fig. 2) to participate in fatty acid synthesis in the cytosol. Citrate synthase fuses acetyl-coenzyme A with oxaloacetic acid to produce citric acid that is transported from the mitochondria to the cytosol. Once in the cytosol, citric acid is converted back to oxaloacetic acid The increase of lipogenesis and decrease of β-oxidation led to fat accumulation and fatty liver. Chronic ethanol consumption also induced increase in PRBP and decrease in α-TTP, CAIII, Cu/Zn-SOD, rhodanese, and peroxiredoxin 1, which may cause of oxidative stress. In fact, patients with aspartate/glutamate carrier deficiency can develop NAFLD and NASH without presenting other features of metabolic syndrome. How these patients develop NAFLD is unknown, but the radical-promoting potential of citrate might come into play in the pathogenesis of this disease. Jul 18, 2014 · The citrate carrier (CiC), characteristic of animals, and the dicarboxylate–tricarboxylate carrier (DTC), characteristic of plants and protozoa, belong to the mitochondrial carrier protein family whose members are responsible for the exchange of metabolites, cofactors, and nucleotides between the cytoplasm and the mitochondrial matrix. Key words: citrate carrier, gene expression, lipogenesis, PUFA, rat liver, SREBP-1. INTRODUCTION Citrate carrier (CiC), (also known as tricarboxylate carrier), a mitochondrial inner membrane protein catalyzes electroneutral exchange of a tricarboxylate for either another tricarboxylate, a dicarboxylate or phosphoenolpyruvate. Nov 08, 2007 · Pharmaceutically acceptable carriers are well known to those skilled in the art and include, but are not limited to, 0.01-0.1 M and preferably 0.05 M phosphate buffer or 0.8% saline. Intravenous carriers include fluid and nutrient replenishers, electrolyte replenishers such as those based on Ringer's dextrose, and the like.